星期六, 11月 15, 2008

Defense Mechanisms

在 karen sze 那兒與篤兄相認,原來彼此曾經是同事!(well,我七年間做過七份工喇)篤兄仁慈,問我那時的上司那麼嚴厲,可有驚惶?

嗯,我上班一星期便出了一個 event,做十樣野錯十樣野,結果在 event 完結時我非常難過,流下淚來。

其實我不是怕俾人鬧,怕上司惡(事實上她雖然嚴厲,但卻是一位心地極好的資深社工)。我是不能面對失敗的自己。

同事和我聊起過公司的煙腸,說不明白為何他好像從不知錯,我靈光一閃,這條高GPA的煙腸,是否一時之間不能面對失敗的自己?

初出茅廬(當然煙腸唔算出茅廬)者,常常氣盛而輕狂。出了錯,有些人如我會透過哭泣宣洩情緒,有些人則會透過形形色色的 self defense mechanisms 來令自己好過。

如果我身邊有一時之間能面對失敗的自己的朋友或工作伙伴,我會將我自己相關的故事與他們分享,並且鼓勵他們振作。一如那時候,我那嚴厲的上司拍拍我的膊頭,告訴我:「你已經 pick up 得很快,多給自己一點時間吧!」

Defense Mechanism
Level 1

The mechanisms on this level, when predominating, almost always are severely pathological. These three defences, in conjunction, permit one to effectively rearrange external reality and eliminate the need to cope with reality. The pathological users of these mechanisms frequently appear crazy or insane to others. These are the "psychotic" defences, common in overt psychosis. However, they are found in dreams and throughout childhood as healthy mechanisms.

They include:

* Denial: Refusal to accept external reality because it is too threatening; arguing against an anxiety-provoking stimulus by stating it doesn't exist; resolution of emotional conflict and reduction of anxiety by refusing to perceive or consciously acknowledge the more unpleasant aspects of external reality.

* Distortion: A gross reshaping of external reality to meet internal needs.

* Delusional Projection: Grossly frank delusions about external reality, usually of a persecutory nature.

Level 2

These mechanisms are often present in adults and more commonly present in adolescence. These mechanisms lessen distress and anxiety provoked by threatening people or by uncomfortable reality. People who excessively use such defences are seen as socially undesirable in that they are immature, difficult to deal with and seriously out of touch with reality. These are the so-called "immature" defences and overuse almost always lead to serious problems in a person's ability to cope effectively. These defences are often seen in severe depression and personality disorders. In adolescence, the occurrence of all of these defences is normal.

These include:

* Fantasy: Tendency to retreat into fantasy in order to resolve inner and outer conflicts.

* Projection: Projection is a primitive form of paranoia. Projection also reduces anxiety by allowing the expression of the undesirable impulses or desires without becoming consciously aware of them; attributing one's own unacknowledged unacceptable/unwanted thoughts and emotions to another; includes severe prejudice, severe jealousy, hypervigilance to external danger, and "injustice collecting". It is shifting one's unacceptable thoughts, feelings and impulses within oneself onto someone else, such that those same thoughts, feelings, beliefs and motivations are perceived as being possessed by the other.

* Hypochondriasis: The transformation of negative feelings towards others into negative feelings toward self, pain, illness, and anxiety.

* Passive aggression: Aggression towards others expressed indirectly or passively.

* Acting out: Direct expression of an unconscious wish or impulse without conscious awareness of the emotion that drives that expressive behavior.

* Idealization: Subconsciously choosing to perceive another individual as having more positive qualities than he or she may actually have.

Level 3

These mechanisms are considered neurotic, but fairly common in adults. Such defences have short-term advantages in coping, but can often cause long-term problems in relationships, work and in enjoying life when used as one's primary style of coping with the world.

These include:

* Displacement: Defence mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses to a more acceptable or less threatening target; redirecting emotion to a safer outlet; separation of emotion from its real object and redirection of the intense emotion toward someone or something that is less offensive or threatening in order to avoid dealing directly with what is frightening or threatening. For example, a mother may yell at her child because she is angry with her husband.

* Dissociation: Temporary drastic modification of one's personal identity or character to avoid emotional distress; separation or postponement of a feeling that normally would accompany a situation or thought.

* Isolation: Separation of feelings from ideas and events, for example, describing a murder with graphic details with no emotional response.

* Intellectualization: A form of isolation; concentrating on the intellectual components of a situation so as to distance oneself from the associated anxiety-provoking emotions; separation of emotion from ideas; thinking about wishes in formal, affectively bland terms and not acting on them; avoiding unacceptable emotions by focusing on the intellectual aspects (e.g. rationalizations).

* Reaction Formation: Converting unconscious wishes or impulses that are perceived to be dangerous into their opposites; behavior that is completely the opposite of what one really wants or feels; taking the opposite belief because the true belief causes anxiety. This defence can work effectively for coping in the short term, but will eventually break down.

* Repression: Process of pulling thoughts into the unconscious and preventing painful or dangerous thoughts from entering consciousness; seemingly unexplainable naivety, memory lapse or lack of awareness of one's own situation and condition; the emotion is conscious, but the idea behind it is absent.

Level 4

These are commonly found among emotionally healthy adults and are considered the most mature, even though many have their origins in the immature level. However, these have been adapted through the years so as to optimize success in life and relationships. The use of these defences enhances user pleasure and feelings of mastery. These defences help the users to integrate conflicting emotions and thoughts while still remaining effective. Persons who use these mechanisms are viewed as having virtues.

These include:

* Altruism: Constructive service to others that brings pleasure and personal satisfaction

* Anticipation: Realistic planning for future discomfort

* Humor: Overt expression of ideas and feelings (especially those that are unpleasant to focus on or too terrible to talk about) that gives pleasure to others. Humor, which explores the absurdity inherent in any event, enables someone to call a spade a spade, while "wit" is a form of displacement (see above under Category 3). Wit refers to the serious or distressing in a humorous way, rather than disarming it; the thoughts remain distressing, but they are 'skirted round' by the witticism.

* Identification: The unconscious modeling of one's self upon another person's character and behavior

* Introjection: Identifying with some idea or object so deeply that it becomes a part of that person

* Sublimation: Transformation of negative emotions or instincts into positive actions, behavior, or emotion

* Suppression: The conscious process of pushing thoughts into the preconscious; the conscious decision to delay paying attention to an emotion or need in order to cope with the present reality; able to later access uncomfortable or distressing emotions and accept them

Source from Wiki。

我那本寫滿筆記的 psy textbook 入了倉,下次搬屋有望把它翻出來然後在上文每個 mechanism 後面加番d 例子作說明。

4 則留言:

篤篤篤撐 提到...

bonnie姐人惡有要求但唔會煽你, 係好老細, 你好彩la, 一出道就遇上好老細。

當年我地初出道, 就係希望可以遇上有料到又有要求既老細, 可以令自己快d pickup,比人鬧? we are paid for that....

C.M. 提到...

Vow... That's why humor and 爛gag is (are) so important!

C.M. 提到...

Oops... sorry, what's meant by "important?"

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